Tag Archives: spring

Testing Spring Controllers with Spring Security, Embedded LDAP, and Different Application Contexts

To test a secured Spring application with Spring Security and LDAP authentication, we need to take the following steps:

  1. Activate and configure your embedded LDAP server for your tests.
  2. Define users and roles of your choice for your embedded LDAP server.
  3. Write Spring Tests.

Activate and configure your embedded LDAP server

There are at least the two following possibilities to start an embedded LDAP server with Spring:

  1. With Spring Boot
  2. With Spring Security

With Spring Boot

Spring Boot starts for each application context an embedded LDAP server automatically if Spring Boot finds an LDAP server implementation in the classpath and you declare some configuration properties in the application.properties. For the LDAP server implementation called unboundid, you need to declare at least the following properties:

spring.ldap.embedded.ldif=classpath:bootstrap.ldif
spring.ldap.embedded.base-dn=dc=springframework,dc=org

# Further properties are:
spring.ldap.embedded.port
spring.ldap.embedded.validation.enabled
spring.ldap.embedded.credential.username
spring.ldap.embedded.credential.password
spring.ldap.embedded.ur

As highlighted above, Spring Boot starts an embedded LDAP server for each application context. Logically, that means, it starts an embedded LDAP server for each test class. Practically, this is not always true since Spring Boot caches and reuses application contexts. However, you should always expect that there is more than one LDAP server running while executing your tests. For this reason, you may not declare a port for your LDAP server. In this way, it will automatically uses a free port. Otherwise, your tests will fail with “Address already in use”.

With Spring Security

If you want to use – for your tests – an embedded LDAP server as your central authentication management system with Spring Security, then you need to configure Spring Security as follows. Tip: Use two Spring Security configuration classes: one in your src/main/java and one in your src/test/java. The one in src/main/java could simply connect to an existing, non-embedded LDAP server. The one in src/test/java starts one embedded LDAP server for each new test context.

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.AuthenticationManagerBuilder;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.EnableWebSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.security.config.http.SessionCreationPolicy;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.factory.PasswordEncoderFactories;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
public class SecurityTestConfiguration extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

	private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(SecurityTestConfiguration.class);

	@Override
	protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
		PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder = PasswordEncoderFactories.createDelegatingPasswordEncoder();
		// @formatter:off
		auth.ldapAuthentication()
			.userDnPatterns("uid={0},ou=people")
			.groupSearchBase("ou=groups")
			.contextSource()	// starts an LDAP server if url is not provided
				.ldif("classpath:bootstrap-spring-security.ldif")
				.root("dc=springframework,dc=org")
				// automatically adds the entry indicated by .root()
				.and()
			.passwordCompare()
				.passwordEncoder(passwordEncoder)
				.passwordAttribute("userPassword")
			.and();
		// @formatter:on
		LOGGER.info("Security configuration loaded.");
	}

	@Override
	protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
		// @formatter:off
		http.sessionManagement()
			.sessionCreationPolicy(SessionCreationPolicy.STATELESS)
			.and();
		http.authorizeRequests()
			.anyRequest().authenticated()
			.and()
		.httpBasic();
		// @formatter:on
	}
}

If you do not declare a URL, but an LDIF file path instead, then Spring Security starts an embedded LDAP server automatically – again – for each application context.

One very important difference to Spring Boot is that the root entry is automatically created by Spring Security! So, your LDIF file must not contain the root entry. Otherwise, your application or your tests will fail with “An entry with DN ‘<dn of your root entry>’ already exists in the server.” We highlight this critical root entry in the next section.

Define users and roles of your choice for your embedded LDAP server

Below, you find an example LDIF file. The first entry is the root entry whose dn has to be used as value for the property spring.ldap.embedded.base-dn or, respectively, as argument for the method root(). Note that Spring Security automatically adds the root entry to the LDAP server. Hence, your LDIF file may not contain the root entry.

dn: dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: domain
objectclass: extensibleObject
dc: springframework

dn: ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: groups

dn: ou=subgroups,ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: subgroups

dn: ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: people

dn: ou=space cadets,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: space cadets

dn: ou=\"quoted people\",dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: "quoted people"

dn: ou=otherpeople,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: otherpeople

dn: uid=ben,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Ben Alex
sn: Alex
uid: ben
userPassword: {SHA}nFCebWjxfaLbHHG1Qk5UU4trbvQ=

dn: uid=bob,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Bob Hamilton
sn: Hamilton
uid: bob
userPassword: {noop}bobspassword

dn: uid=joe,ou=otherpeople,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Joe Smeth
sn: Smeth
uid: joe
userPassword: joespassword

dn: cn=mouse\, jerry,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Mouse, Jerry
sn: Mouse
uid: jerry
userPassword: jerryspassword

dn: cn=slash/guy,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: slash/guy
sn: Slash
uid: slashguy
userPassword: slashguyspassword

dn: cn=quote\"guy,ou=\"quoted people\",dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: quote\"guy
sn: Quote
uid: quoteguy
userPassword: quoteguyspassword

dn: uid=space cadet,ou=space cadets,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Space Cadet
sn: Cadet
uid: space cadet
userPassword: spacecadetspassword

dn: cn=developers,ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: groupOfUniqueNames
cn: developers
ou: developer
uniqueMember: uid=ben,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
uniqueMember: uid=bob,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org

dn: cn=managers,ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: groupOfUniqueNames
cn: managers
ou: manager
uniqueMember: uid=ben,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
uniqueMember: cn=mouse\, jerry,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org

dn: cn=submanagers,ou=subgroups,ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: groupOfUniqueNames
cn: submanagers
ou: submanager
uniqueMember: uid=ben,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org

Write Spring Tests

And here are two example tests which tests the same thing but each with a different application context (see the different class annotations). As you will notice in the console output, two LDAP servers with different ports will be started and the tests will pass.

import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.*;
import static org.springframework.security.test.web.servlet.request.SecurityMockMvcRequestPostProcessors.*;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.*;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.*;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.web.servlet.AutoConfigureMockMvc;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.http.MediaType;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockHttpServletRequestBuilder;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
@AutoConfigureMockMvc
public class HelloController1Test {

	@Autowired
	private MockMvc mvc;

	@Test
	public void getHelloWithValidLogin() throws Exception {
		// @formatter:off
		mvc.perform(get("/").with(httpBasic("bob", "bobspassword")).with(csrf()))
			.andExpect(status().isOk())
			.andExpect(content().string(equalTo("Greetings from Spring Boot!")));
		// @formatter:on
	}

	@Test
	public void getHelloWithInvalidPassword() throws Exception {
		MockHttpServletRequestBuilder requestBuilder = MockMvcRequestBuilders.get("/")
				.accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON);

		mvc.perform(requestBuilder.with(httpBasic("bob", "wrong password"))).andExpect(status().isUnauthorized());
	}
}
import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.*;
import static org.springframework.security.test.web.servlet.request.SecurityMockMvcRequestPostProcessors.*;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.*;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.*;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.data.ldap.AutoConfigureDataLdap;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.web.servlet.WebMvcTest;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Import;
import org.springframework.http.MediaType;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockHttpServletRequestBuilder;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders;

import chw.tutorial.springboot.SecurityTestConfiguration;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@WebMvcTest(value = HelloController.class)
@Import(SecurityTestConfiguration.class)
@AutoConfigureDataLdap
public class HelloController3Test {

	@Autowired
	private MockMvc mvc;

	@Test
	public void getHelloWithValidLogin() throws Exception {
		// @formatter:off
		mvc.perform(get("/").with(httpBasic("bob", "bobspassword")).with(csrf()))
			.andExpect(status().isOk())
			.andExpect(content().string(equalTo("Greetings from Spring Boot!")));
		// @formatter:on
	}

	@Test
	public void getHelloWithInvalidPassword() throws Exception {
		MockHttpServletRequestBuilder requestBuilder = MockMvcRequestBuilders.get("/")
				.accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON);

		mvc.perform(requestBuilder.with(httpBasic("bob", "wrong password"))).andExpect(status().isUnauthorized());
	}
}

Pitfalls

As described above, you may get one of the following error messages if you have not correctly configured your embedded LDAP server. In this blog post, we explained why these errors occur and gave appropriate solutions.

  1. “Address already in use: NET_bind”
  2. “com.unboundid.ldap.sdk.LDAPException: An entry with DN ‘dc=springframework,dc=org’ already exists in the server.”

Scheduling Tasks/Jobs with Spring (Boot)

Static Scheduling

Spring offers the annotation @Scheduled to define a task and its corresponding scheduling, e.g., execute this method every 5 minutes. The annotation saves you a great deal of work: in the background, it creates or looks up a scheduler, creates a task which invokes your method, and passes the task to the scheduler with your scheduling arguments (here: every 5 minutes).

Scheduling Parameters

The annotation @Scheduled allows to specify a fixed delay (in ms), a fixed rate (in ms), or a more flexible cron expression if the first two options are not expressive enough for your use case. The following code snippet shows an implementation of our “every 5 seconds”-example from above:

@Component // or any subtype like @Service
public class AnyComponent {

    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(AnyComponent.class);

    private static final SimpleDateFormat dateFormat = new SimpleDateFormat("HH:mm:ss");

    @Scheduled(fixedRate = 5000)
    public void reportCurrentTime() { // visibility is irrelevant: even private is possible
        log.info("The time is now {}", dateFormat.format(new Date()));
    }
}
Task Method Requirements

The method, which is annotated with @Scheduled, must fulfill the following requirements:

  • The enclosing class of the method must be a Spring component. That is, the class must be annotated with the annotation @Component or an annotation which includes @Component like @Service, for example.
  • The method must be void.
  • The method must have no parameters.
  • The method may be private.
Read Parameter Values from a Properties File

If you do not want to specify the delay or the rate directly in the code, you can read it from the configuration context. For this purpose, Spring provides the parameters fixedDelayString and fixedRateString. The following example reads the seconds of the delay from the configuration key my.property.fixed.delay.seconds. If the value is not available or invalid, a default value of 60 is used. Since the delay expects a value in milliseconds, 000 is appended to the read value.

// with a default value of 60
@Scheduled(fixedDelayString = "${my.property.fixed.delay.seconds:60}000")

Further examples:

// without a default value
@Scheduled(fixedDelayString = "${my.property.fixed.delay.seconds}000")
// without appending
@Scheduled(fixedDelayString = "${my.property.fixed.delay.milliseconds}")
// hard-coded value as string (not recommended due to missing static type checking)
@Scheduled(fixedDelayString = "7000")

With these *String variants, you can define the delay or, respectively, the rate from aproperties file. Note that the value is read only once at startup time. Thus, this approach is still static. You cannot change the value at runtime. We refer to the Javadoc of @Scheduled for more detailed information on the parameters.

Dynamic Scheduling

If you need to read your scheduling arguments dynamically, that is, at runtime, then you @Scheduled is not sufficient. Instead, your can use Spring’s interface TaskScheduler. Declare a field with this type and annotate it with Spring’s @Autowired annotation. Then, you can pass a dynamically created task to the scheduler and specify whether it should be executed once or repeatable with a fixed delay or at a fixed rate. We refer to the documentation of the TaskScheduler for more information.

Sources